THEORIES OF CREATIVITY
METAPHYSICAL AND TOPOLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS OF CREATIVITY
Understanding of the phenomenon and the intrinsic nature of creativity requires the utmost opening of the semantic contexts, radical expansion of the methodological framework, finding reliable explanatory principles, based on the universal structures and laws of the world.
Empirical studies of creative activity must be accompanied by disclosure of fundamental bases and super-experienced basic principles of reality that define the necessary conditions, the sources and the very possibility of the existence of creativity and the creative potential of the personality.
In the broadest sense creativity is defined as the existence of an absolute, unconditional and primary essence, which is constituted and manifested by the original universals: Freedom, Possibility, Whole and Interaction.
These universals are hollow, invisible and immeasurable. They draw the coordinating framework of meaning and are universal, qualitatively unique "places", some independent "retracting" spaces, existing under the laws of the self-generating vacuum. At the same time their architectonics can be shown and seen by the construction of the generalized topological models or "Map of Entities".
Productivity and heuristic power of the universal "Map of Entities " is naturally that of highlighting of empty “places” and in the prediction of possible, yet not declaring themselves, but nevertheless equal valued entities, and entire regions of living reality and, standing behind them, therefore highlights the possible trends and trajectories of development.
Supposing there are a large number of multidimensional topological models, the maximal completeness and ease of synthesis of phenomena of reality is achieved using the System Description proposed by V.A. Gansen (1984). In this system the coordinating “Pentabasis” consisting of four putting-in-rows and one unifying central concept is chosen as an organizing reference matrix.
Thus, when disclosing a higher, universal "Matrix of Entities" of creativity it is advisable to represent its fundamental dimensions in the form of the “Pentabasis”. This universal pattern consists of two interconnected pairs of primary essences "Interaction – Whole” (Being) and "Possibility - Freedom" (Nothing), which are combined, mutually coordinated and balanced by the ultimate essence, the Absolute. In addition, each phenomenon and variable of manifested creative reality should undergo the procedure of localization, chronologization and correlation with the central priming essence and with its fundamental dimensions.
In an extremely broad, metaphysical-and-topological plan creativity is understood as a way of existence and manifestation of the Absolute that is unfolded by realization of its universal dimensions or primal essences: Freedom, Possibility, Whole and Interaction.
This high transcendental flow manifests itself at a personological level as a Creative Vision. It is experienced as an internal, deeply intimate reality and objectified in the phenomenological worlds in the form of material and spiritual values.
Table 1. The Essential dimensions and universal manifestations of creativity
Creativity as the creation
Creativity as the creation and
Unfolding of the Absolute
Creativity as the Interaction
Creativity as realization
In the Table are used the paintings : Salvador Dalí, Tomek Sętowski, Jamile Baldridge, Greg Spalenka
Ontological and universal –and- creative nature of the psyche
The psyche or mental organization of a human being is ontological in nature (A. Wallon and S. L. Rubinstein). At the same time it is subordinated to the space creative principle and is identical to the source of creation (S. Grof). The psychic reality is not determined by biological, sociological, personal, and even cultural determinants, and involves them into itself as a higher, already manifested and assimilated levels.
The psyche, as a reality and at the same time a reflection of reality, is holographically built into the Universe, and as a continuous, self-developing "World image" (A.N. Leontiev) is woven into the process of evolution. However, it manifests itself as a living microcosm and obeys to the most general and universal principles and laws of functioning and development of the world as a whole.
Universal structure of the psyche naturally includes the full range of consciousness manifestations, and contains unconscious and transpersonal states, as well as its pre-subject and meta-subject stages of development.
In addition, the psyche is the original, universal-and -creative nature, its productive functioning consists in building a dynamic image of the world, and its essential mechanisms are isomorphic in relation to creativity mechanisms (V.T. Kudryavtsev).
Thus, the original "Map of Entities", constructed by dialectic bunches: "Interaction-Whole," "Freedom -Possibility" and integrating by the Absolute, creates and organizes the explanatory space both for philosophical theories of creativity and for those built on explanation of the such basic mental processes, as "memory - thinking," "intuition - imagination" and underlying them process of perceptions.
PERSONOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT OF CREATIVITY
A special task is to introduce the subject to the “Map of Entities” and to identify the relationship between the man and each of the entities. The man gives them a meaning and value content, and correlates with the whole spectrum of internal needs. There are no universalities without human beings. Entities can exist only by the person. It is just like music that can not exist without a human ear, and also the sounds created from "raw" waves and vibrations can not exist without it too. Organic inclusion of a human being in the map of universal entities is realized through creativity, which, as a mode of existence of the Absolute, is the primary essence, as well as the highest forms of human life.
Creativity manifests itself as an independent effective unconditional primary essence, which defines itself, with which the reality is corresponded and which itself provides justification for the phenomenal world.
The actual content of reality - L.M. Lopatin wrote, - must be explained by its correspondence to the supreme ideal, which the absolute creative activity implements in its creation.
Creativity itself requires no reference to primary source, to any more fundamental essence or universal value.
It is itself the beginning and the center of the world and is the causa finalis, the source of all things, and the highest point of reference. Creativity supports the Universe; it is the axis around which invisible universals, all phenomenal and possible worlds turn.
N. Berdyaev (1916) has always stressed primary fundamental form and primordial character of creativity: Creative experience is not something secondary, and therefore requiring justification, creative experience is something primary and therefore justifying.
In this formulation the problem the question of the fundamental conditions of creativity loses its meaning as the creativity acquires the metaphysical absoluteness, the ontological primacy and existential self-sufficiency.
Conditions for Creativity occur within; and external and internal realities repeatedly include each other following by special recursive causality. This type of causality is created in the flow of activity of unique creative personality.
Causality understood within, - L.M. Lopatin wrote, - is a creative act of a living creature. A reason builds and creates the effect. The reason is a creative energy and assumes a creature who is obsessed with this energy. Causality is impossible without the creator. Creativity as the primary essence is just like the Platonic ideas about which A. Whitehead wrote- It possesses a creative power to create conditions for its own implementation.
PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CREATIVITY
In his article "Analysis of creativity" (1961) Mel Rhodes (1961) analyzed 40 definitions of creativity and 16 definitions of imagination, and developed and proved the holistic model of creativity - 4 Ps, representing it as the interaction of 4 factors: process, product, person, and press. In his turn, Ross Mooney (1962) in his “Conceptual Model for Integrating Four Approaches to the Identification of Creative Talent,” also proposed to consider creativity through the prism of model 4 Ps (process, product, person, and environment).
Stuart E. Golann (1963) replaced the concept of environment with the notion of "place" and his theory of the 4 Ps (process, product, person, and place) became a structural basis for studying creativity. Thus, the "place" was understood as problematic or socially-organized environment. Dean K. Simonton identifying the concepts of leadership and creativity expanded the list of the organizing categories and introduced fifth P – persuasion.
Besides, Klaus Urban (2003) adds problem as a new dimension to three classic ones: process, product and person, retaining the category of environment (environment). Thus, he brings a new integrated formula for creativity: 4Ps-E.
The theory of 4Ps has been constructed on the basis of generalization of empirical experience, in strict accordance with scientific criteria and principles of evidence and rationality.
At the same time, there is another–reflexive way to investigate creativity, which consists in the original construction of its conceptual constructs and topological models giving a wider context and areas of understanding. This model makes it possible to highlight the facts and phenomena that are inaccessible to direct observation and empirical investigation. These initial explanatory constructs are chosen arbitrarily, intuitively, by grasping the deep archetypes and universal structures of reality.
As the original semantic context you can select the individuals’ life-world, or rather a set of phenomenological worlds in which there is a free self-realization of human being and his creative dialogue with the world.
The highest possible completeness of the description of existing and possible empirical experience is achieved by its introduction to the contextual configuration of the phenomenological worlds, by building the certain topological construct – Pentabazis. This universal structure combines Objective and Symbolic, Inner and Social worlds, as well as Culture, as the center of their integration.
This Pentabasis has a powerful explanatory and heuristic potential and in a striking manner includes the basic dimensions or domains of creativity (process, product, person and environment), which were obtained empirically.
At the same time in a very broad sense creativity is presented as a holistic steady continuum, as the flow of Creative vision, which is structured by universal laws and structures. This integrated flow of vision projects itself onto the base, phenomenal worlds and manifests itself with the help of specific elements, structures, and laws of these worlds.
Creative vision is a self-contained form of activity that harmoniously includes and integrates all other forms of creativity. So in the objective world, it appears as a Productive creative activity, in the symbolic as a Creative problem solving, in social as a Creative Dialogue and as a Creative Self-realization in the inner world.
The highest form of creativity is determined by the laws of the world of culture and manifests itself as a Creative Vision, Co-creation with the world, a creative adaptation and harmonization with the meanings and condensed senses of the Universe, as well as sense-creation (meaning creation), as the process of dredging and endowing reality with developing, creatological senses.
When coining the term «Sense-creation», we relied on the distinction between the concepts of Sense and Meaning, that Gottlob Frege introduced in his innovative paper "Über Sinn und Bedeutung" (1892), ("On Sense and Reference" and in later edition as "On Sense and Meaning ").
Besides, it has been taken into account that fact that Sense (as rational meaning) is not only a constituting unit of the consciousness, but rather the flow, which runs through all levels of psychic organization of a human being, as from the unconscious structures of pre-understanding, perceptual-sensory and emotional systems to the highest personal and intimate levels of comprehension, that involves a depth of experience, individual views and even moral perception or appreciation. On the other hand if meaning of the object is defined by its objective function and essence, then sense is the result of an original vision of the object, a kind of quality specific, personal experience of the whole richness of its content.
Besides, Meaning is often identified with the linguistic meaning of the words, and in this context it is related to the understanding of the whole World as a Text. At the same time Sense is the result of the decoding of all forms of representation of information, and is born in the process of interaction of personality with all the all real phenomenological worlds and spheres of spiritual reality.
Finally, meaning (reference) is associated with the denotation or primary meaning of a word, and sense with connotation or subjective cultural and emotional association and ideas that this word invokes. Thus, Senses are directly related to creative thinking and imagination or creative vision, as they can easily be generated by concepts which have no objective meanings, such as a mythological deities or fictional characters and events.
Sense structures are the highest, nuclear, integrative-transcendent entities of personality, and the sense is equivalent to the existence of personality in the world and to the life itself. "Some called it the fourth - V.P. Zinchenko wrote, - and some called it the fifth dimension of existence. Although it should be called the first. "
Sence-creation and comprehension of reality is the central dynamic components of the highest form of creativity - Creative vision, which involves creative activity (product), problem-solving (process), self-actualization (person) and a creative dialogue (place). In this context, for the purpose of revealing the deepest essence of creativity is useful to introduce the fifth element, a central dimension - sense (meaning), and accordingly to represent the classic model of creativity in the form of 4Ps / S (process, product, person, place, sense)*.
* Markov, S.L. (2011) Formuvannia tvorchogo bachennia osobystosti jak universalnyi metod aktivizacii tvorchosti [Formation of creative vision of an individual as the universal method of enhancing creativity]. In S.D. Maksimenko & L.M. Karamushka (Eds.), Actualni problemy psichologii. Vol 1. (pp. 374-380). Kyiv:Publishing House “A.C.K”.
Creativity takes its roots in culture and human practice, in social world, in text reality and in the unique existential experience. Creativity is not only a process, ability, product, or specially organized environment but rather a universal principle, multi-dimensional dynamic space, self-sufficient generating primal essence and highest unfolded sense that manifests itself in phenomenal worlds in the form of an effective problem-solving, self-realization, productive activities and creative dialogue.
Table 2. Forms of manifestations of Creativity in the phenomenal worlds
Creative Problem Solving
Creative Vision and Sense-creation
MAIN PHILOSOPHICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CREATIVITY
Creativity as the creation
Creativity as the creation and
Unfolding of the Absolute
Creativity as the Interaction
Creativity as realization
1. Сreativity as the unfolding of the Absolute, Creativity of Nature and a universal process of evolution.
1.1. Creativity as an embodiment of the Absolute and the co-creation of man with the creative power of the Supreme Reality.
Man as an mediator between heaven and earth, as an active, creative force - "qian" ("Book of Changes " ("I Ching"), 16th. -12th. c. BC); Creativity as a secondary act of creation, the unity of Brahman and Atman (Hinduism, 15th. c. BC); The principle of the analogy of human creativity and divine creativity, occurring under the laws of harmony (Neo Pythagoreanism, 1st c. BC-3rd. c. AD); Emanation of the One, out of abundance and surplus (Plotinus, 3rd c. AD, Proclus, 5th c. AD); Co-creation as a one breath with the Absolute reality (Ibn Arabi, 12th-13th c.); Confluence and co-vision with the Divine (M. Eckhart, 13th-14th c.); Unity of Creator and creation, the creative power of man (Nicholas of Cusa, 15th. c.); Co-creation with the Absolute and Nature through transcendental intuitive contemplation (F. Schelling, 1802); Self-revelation of the Absolute Spirit (Hegel, 1807); Embodiment of beauty, harmony, perfection and spiritual which are contained in Nature (R. W. Emerson, 1836; H. D. Thoreau, 1854); The concept of "transcreation" or complementary act of God, raising the soul from animality to humanity; Implementation of the divine creative force of will, living in a man, free creativity of substantial figures (N.O. Lossky, 1906, 1927); Creativity as super-personal experience, “escape from emotion and personality", expression and development of tradition living within the creator (T.S. Eliot, 1920, 1932); Creativity as a free self-realization of person, as a spiritual being, transforming and embodying the absolute values (R. T. Flewelling, 1926); Implementation of universal archetypes (Jung, 1928); Co-creation with God (N. Berdyaev, 1935); Human Creativity as a creative expression of absolute, universal force (Nishida Kitaro, 1927, 1945); Creativity as the forming principle and way of a human being, person as the primary creative reality (E. Mounier, 1936); Evolution as the concentration and planetarization of consciousness (Teilhard de Chardin, 1955).
1.2. Сo-creation with the ultimate Creative force by achieving the higher states of consciousness. Achieving liberation (Moksha) and dissolution in the Absolute (Hinduism, 15 th. c. BC); Creativity as a result of divine inspiration (Plato,5th - 4th.c. BC); State of "super-sensible " ecstasy and ecstatic ascent of the human soul to the One (Plotinus, 3rd. c. AD, Proclus (5th.c.AD); "Prophetic inspiration", the transcendental ecstasy (R. W. Emerson, 1836; H. D. Thoreau, 1854); Achievement and embodiment of the Cosmic Consciousness (R.M. Bucke, 1901); Mystic psychography, automatic writing, clairvoyance (T. Flournoy, 1900), Divine intuition (J. Maritain, 1953); Activity of supra-conscious (P. Sorokin, 1961); Peak-experience, transcendental ecstasy (Maslow, 1968); The unity of creativity and Psi-phenomena: motivation, relaxation and dissociation (Gardner Murphy, 1969); Transpersonal experience and perception (Roy Dreistadt, 1971); Extrasensory perception, hypersensitivity, telepathy (S. Krippner, G. Murphy, 1966, 1973); Implementation of creative higher states of consciousness (S.Tart, 1975); Dreaming as the deployment of a hidden order (M. Ullman, 1973, 1979); Reaching the state of Flow (M. Csikszentmihalyi, 1975); Creativity as an activity of Super-consciousness (K. Stanislavsky, 1926, 1938; P.V. Simonov, 1975); Over-consciousness (M.G. Yaroshevsky, 1983); Manifestation of the highest unconscious (the highest form of intuition and inspiration) (R. Assadzholi, 1973); Manifestation of the super-conscious and realization of the spectrum of creativity (W. Harman, J. Reinhold, 1984); Creativity as a transcendental meditation (R. Walsh, D. Shapiro, 1984, 2006, Michael Murphy, S. Donovan, 1988, 1997; M. Kwee, 1990; M. Murphy, R. White, 1995; R. Horan, 2009); Expansion and widening of consciousness, realization of the universal creative force (S. Grof, 1998).
1.3. Creative Vision of the World. A Spiritual Vision (Darshan) as an intuitive enlightenment and rational understanding of reality (Hinduism, 15th.c. BC); Contemplation (refined thought) as the fullness of the mind and visualization (Cun Xiang) (Daozizm, 6th c. BC); Penetrating vision (vipassana) and enlightenment (Buddhism, 6th. c. BC); Contemplation of ideas, entities, and beauty (Plato, 5th -4th c. BC) ; The highest value of the metaphysical, "disinterested contemplation" as the beginning of the knowledge (Aristotle, 4 th. c. BC);The spiritual vision (Plotinus, 3th. AD); Intuitive, inner, superconscious contemplation of essences (Augustine, 4th -5th c.); Transcendental mystical vision of the truth (al-Ghazali, 11th.-12th. c., Ibn 'Arabi, 12th -13th c. ); Achievement of satori and the acquisition of a new vision (Zen Buddhism, 12th c.); Aesthetic , productive contemplation (F.Shelling, 1800), Creativity as the contemplation of pure essences (A. Schopenhauer, 1819); Eidetic intuition and constitution of meaning (E. Husserl, 1913); Transcendental, intuitive vision of the entities and the identification of consciousness with the world (N.O.Lossky, 1908; N.A. Berdyaev, 1916; S.L. Frank, 1917); Person’s Vision as a source of creativity and creation of the worlds of culture (G. Simmel, 1911,1918); Transition from action to the vision, the unity of the transcendental and phenomenological vision from the standpoint of absolute emptiness "Basho" (Nishida Kitaro, 1927); The aesthetic attitude and perception of the world (A.A.Melik-Pashayev, 1990); Creative vision as the unity of creative stand (meta-attitude), higher state of consciousness and method. (S.L. Markov, 1997, 2011).
Processes: Creative perception: Perceiving of the world in an unhabitual way (W. James, 1890); A special sensitivity to the aesthetic beauty and harmony (H. Poincaré, 1908); Creativity as an ability to regard the old problems from a new angle (A. Einstein, L. Infeld, 1938 ); Sensitivity to problems (J. Guilford, 1950); Creative visual perception, the unity of perception and thought (R. Arnheim, 1954.1969); Fusion of perceptions which is carried out in a new way (Peter McKellar, 1957), Creativity as the perception of complexity and uncertainty (F. Barron, 1958); Creativity as an allocentric perception and completely absorbing in the object Ernest G.Schachtel (1959); The ability to see the familiar as a strange and the strange as a familiar (W. Gordon, 1961); Process of sensing gaps or disturbing missing elements (E.Torrance,1962); Creativity as b-cognition which involves experiencing the object as a whole A. Maslow (1962); The Creative Vision as a longitudinal study of Problem Finding (W. Getzels, M. Csikszentmihalyi, 1976); Creative perception (K.J. Goodman, D.I. Marquard,1978); Perception, creating images as a component of visual thinking and creativity (R.H. McKim, 1980); Processes of visual code manipulation and cross-modal transformations J. Guilford (1981, 1983); Perception as the primal and basic process of creative activity (Richard L. Gregory, 1970, 1987); Creativity as the perception of art ( Antony J. Chapman, 1984); Intentional variation of point of views toward the object (Edward de Bono, 1985); A Configural Conception of Creativity (John H. Flowers, Calvin P. Garbin, 1989); Creativity as mindfulness, openness to experience and flexibility (Ellen J. Langer, 1989, 2000); The creative perception (L. Friedel, 1992); Creative perception, cognition and dynamic representation (Steven M. Smith, Thomas B. Ward, Ronald A. Finke, 1992, Beverly Roskos-Ewoldsen, 1993); Creativity as the Playful Perception (Herbert L. Leff, 1994); Creativity, perception Imagination: Representation and Transformation in Mental Imagery (Daniel Reisberg, Robert H. Logie, Geir Kaufmann, Maria A. Brandimonte, 1996).
Creativity as Synesthesia and Cross-Modal Representations. Creativity and syncretic perception (L. Marks,1978; E. Lawrence, 1982; Audrey Dailey, Colin Martindale, Jonathan Borkum,1998); Creativity as Synaesthesia (G. Domino 1989); Synesthesia and physiognomic perception (A. Dailey, C. Martindale, J. Borkum 1997).
Imagery, imagination and visualization. Visual imagery and the manipulation of visual codes (R.N. Shepard, 1978, 1981); Transformation of verbal problems in visual images (J.L. Adams, 1979); Creative Visualization (S. Gawain , 1982); Creative perception and percept-genesis (S. Smitt, 1990, van den Meer, 1994); The imagery-creativity (S. Daniels-McGhee, G. A. Davis, 1994);
Perception, Imagery, Perceptual Symbol Systems (R.A. Finke 1990; T.B. Ward, S.M. Smith, 1992, 1995); Perceptual activity, imagination and creativity (Nigel J. T. Thomas, 1999, 2002); Creativity as visualization, deautomatizationand and synesthetic process (G.Cupchic,1999); Visualization and creative problem-solving (R. Arp, 2005); A Computer Model of Creativity Based on Perceptual Activity Theory (P.J. Blain, 2006).
Analogical perception. Synesthetic perception and poetic methaphor (L. Marks, 1982); Analogy as high level perception (D.J. Chalmers, R.M. French, D. R. Hofstadter, 1992, M. Mitchell, 1993, C. T. Morrison, E Dietrich, 1995, K. D. Forbus, D. Gentner, A. B. Markman, R. W. Ferguson, 1998, D. Hofstadter, 2001).
Creative attention. Creativity as defocused attention and breadth of attention (G. Mendelsohn, 1976; J. Kasof 1997; K. Urban, 2003); The concentration of information and spreading throughout the semantic networks (C. Martindale 1995); The process of focusing, defocusing of attention (P.A. Howard-Jones, S. Murray, 2003); include selective encoding, selective comparison and selective combination (T.Lubart, 2003); The focus of attention as a factor of creativity (R.S. Friedman, 2003; L.Y. Dorfman, VA Gasimova, 2006; O. M. Razumnikova, 2008); Creativity as variability and flexibility of attention (O. Vartanian, 2009).
1.4. Creativity of Nature. Unfolding of Prakriti (Nature's creative potential), through three gunas - principles of creation [sattva (lightness, wisdom), rajas (passion, impetus), tamas (inertia)] ("The Mahabharata", "The Bhagavad Gita", 6th-4th c. BC); Entelechy as the inner active principle and tendency to formation (Aristotle, 4th. BC); Creativity of genius, as a manifestation of the innate mental disposition (ingenium) through which Nature gives the rule to Art (I. Kant, 1790); Manifestation of an Universal Will (A. Schopenhauer, 1819); Creativity as the essence of nature and life (L. Feuerbach, 1843); Evolutionary Love (Ch. Peirce, 1893); Self-development and self-revelation of the world as a hierarchy of personalities (W. Stern, 1906-1924); Creative Evolution (A. Bergson, 1907); Creativity as a continuation of the living nature evolution (A. Lezin, 1907; P. K. Engelmeyer, 1910), Creativity of animate and inanimate Nature (M. Bloch, 1920), Emergent Evolution (S. Alexander, C. Lloyd Morgan, 1923); Creativity as a reconstruction of the birth process (Otto Rank, 1924); Realization of Creative Cosmic Force (A. Whitehead,1929); Manifestation of the Vital Force (George Coghill, 1929; Herbert Read, 1943; S. Buhler, 1951; E. Sinnott, 1955, 1957; Th. Dobzhansky, 1954, 1974); Highest manifestation of the principle of Self-duplication (H. Gutman,1961); Creativity as quality of protoplasm and the primary, fundamental quality of life (Harold H. Anderson, 1960); Creativity as a Life Force (d'Arsy Hayman, 1960; G. Kneller (1965); The model of the creative generative grammar (N. Chomsky, 1955, 1967); Creativity as an accretive, replicative mutual growtn (George T.L. Land, 1974); Creativity as a productive form of development (Y.A. Ponomarev, 1976); Creativity as a special form of development (D. Feldman, H. Gruber, 1982, 1986); Recursive deployment of the base system (A.V. Anisimov,1988); Creativity as a form of evolution (H. Bloom, 1995, 2010; L. Gabora, 1997; K. Urban, 2003); Creativity as a global, universal evolution (E. Jantsch, 1980; F. Capra, 1989; N.N. Moiseev, 1989, H. Morowitz, 2002, T. Lombardo, 2011); Creative processes theory based on evolutionary mega synthesis (A.G.Yushchenko, 2008).
The process: Creativity as generation and selection of combinations.
Producing random images through spontaneous variation, which the outer environment selects (W. James,1890); Generation of random combinations or ideas and their creative choice (H. Poincare,1913); Production of random combinations of possible solutions to a problem and their critical evaluation (J.Hadamard ,1954); Blind variation and selective retention: variation, selection and retention (D.T. Campbell, 1960); Generation of alternatives, selection, retention (D.N. Perkins, M. Csikszentmihalyi, 1988); Chance permutation, formation configurations, social acceptance (D.Simonton, 1988).
1.5. Creativity as mutual transitions of Being and Nothing.
The appearance and disappearance as a mutual transitions of chaos and cosmos, the limit and infinity (Anaximander, 7 th -6 th c. BC, Pythagoras, 6 th -5 th c. BC); Emergence of Being inside Nothing, in the process of permanent mutual transition of universal polar forces the yin and the yang (Lao-Tzu, 6 th -5 th c. BC); Flow of becoming which involves being and nothing as its separate aspects (Heraclitus, 6 th -5 th c. BC); Creativity as a transition from Nothing into Being (Plato, 5 th - 4 th BC); Creation as a transition from invisible state to visible one (Sextus Empiricus, 2nd - 3rd c. AD); Creativity as self-unfolding and folding of the Absolute, as the coincidence of opposites (coincidentia oppositorum) (Nicholas of Cusa, 1460); Development and becoming as the transition from being to nothing (and conversely) (Hegel, 1806).
Synergetic model of creativity. Autopoiesis: self-generation, self-organization, self-production (H. Maturana, F. Varela, 1973); Universal process of birth order and form out of chaos (R. May, 1975); Creativity as a spontaneous generation of order out of chaos (Ilya Prigogine, 1980, 1984, H. Haken, 1981); Creativity and development as a spontaneous and directed transformation (D. Feldman, 1988); Creativity as a Spontaneous self-organization of Metaconscience (V.V. Nalimov, 1989); Creativity as self-organization as the path from chaos to the integrity and coherence (F. Barron, 1990), Creativity as overcoming the chaos, the union of order and disorder and the creation of a new qualitative patterns (V. Kenny, H. Gardner, 1988, E. Morin, 1994; S. Kauffman, 1995); Chaos as a creative origin, as a complicated order, as a condition and source of self-organization and creativity (E.N. Knyazeva, S.P . Kurdyumov, 1988, 1992; D. Chernavskiy, 1990; I.S. Dobronravova, 1991; V.I. Arshinov 1977; R.A. Brage, 2004; A.A. Koblyakov, 2010; O.I. Glazunova, 2012); The unity of understanding of creativity both in the Synergetic and Eastern philosophy (F. Capra, 1989; E.N. Knyazeva, 1992; T.P. Grigorieva, 2002).
2. Creative Interaction
Relationship between individual and materials, people, circumstances (Rogers,1962); Transactional relationships between the individual and environment (Stein,1962); Model of four dimensions of creativity ("logic of life"): interaction with the universe; interaction with the self; the transaction between the two; continual fitting of specific incomings and outgoings (R. Mooney, 1963); Fusion of heterogeneous elements, such as the unity between the actions of the subject and the objective world (F. Hacker, 1965); Creativity as a harmonious interaction of the individual with his environment (H. Anderson, 1965); Encounter, interrelation of person and his world (May,1975); Creativity as a developmental interaction (J.A. Ponomarev, 1976); Creativity as an adaptation, interaction with the environment and development ( Jean Piaget, 1971; Howard E. Gruber, Paul H. Barrett, 1974; D. Feldman, 1980); The interaction between a person and the organizational environment (W.A. Owens, 1969; P. Wesenberg, 1986; M.J. Kirton, R.M. McCarthy,1988.; C.S. Koberg, L.H. Chusmir, 1987); An ecological approach to creativity (C.L. Rodgers, R.E. Kerstetter, 1974; M. Stein, 1975; R. Helson, 1988; D. Harrington, 1990); The investment theory of creativity as a willing and ability to “buy low and sell high” (R.Sternberg, T. Lubart, 1995,1997); Ecological and interactive approach to creativity, as the interaction between person, process, product and environment (Donald J. Treffinger, 1987; Scott G. Isaksen, Geir Kaufmann, Gerard J. Puccio, Mary C. Murdock, 1990).
Process: The creative association and memory. Accidental combination of already existing images and parts ( Lukretius Carus (1st century B.C.); Art as a combination of real phenomena (Apollonius of Tyana, 1 st century AD); The process of connecting, comparing, and separation of ideas (John Locke, 1689); Association of sensations, ideas and feelings (George Berkeley, 1709, D. Hartley, 1749); Association as a mechanism for turning simple ideas into complex (D. Hume, 1739); The interaction of the productive imagination and the transcendental apperception (I. Kant, 1781); Active unconscious associations (G. Herbart, 1816); Spontaneous association in which the order of ideas" is independent of the order of sensations (Th. Brown, 1820); Creative synthesis within the theory of "mental chemistry" (John Stuart Mill, 1843); "Constructive association" and the spontaneous action (A. Bain, 1859); Creativity as the intersection and transitions between ideas, and creating unusual combinations, associations and analogies (W. James, 1890); The theory of recombination (dissociation - regrouping - association) (T. Ribot, 1901); Dissociation and association of the impressions, a combination of individual mental images (L.S.Vygotsky, 1930); Creativity as an intellectual ability to make connections between ideas (Ch. Spearman, 1931); The intersection of two ideas (O.A. Keep, 1957); Bisociation of “matrices of thought” (A. Koestler,1964); Remote Associations (S. Mednic,1962); The interaction between the right and left hemispheres (J.E. Bogen, G.M. Bogen, 1969; S.P Springer, G. Deutsch, 1989; T. Hines, 1991; G.A Golitsin, O.N. Kamensky, V. M. Petrov, 1989, 2007; Annukka K. Lindell, 2010, 2011); The interaction between logical and intuitive components of thinking (Ya. A. Ponomarev, 1976); The simultaneous presentation of two or more opposing ideas or essences (Janusian and Homospatial thinking) (A. Rothenberg,1979 ); The interaction between perception and action (responses) (Robert Weisberg, 1986); Creative Association (G. Mendelsohn, 1976; M. Marx, W.A. Hillix (1987); Conceptual combination (J.A. Humpton, 1987,1997; G.L Murphy, 1988; M.I. Mobley, L.M. Doares, 1991; (J.A. Humpton, 1987,1997; G.L Murphy,1988; M.I. Mobley, L.M. Doares, 1991; M.D. Mumford, 1992, 1995; F. J. Castello, M.T. Keane, 2000; C.L. Gagne, 2000, G.M. Scott, D.C. Lonergan, 2003; P. Thagard, T.B. Ward, 1984, 2010); Creative memory, association and original insight (P. Langley and R. Jones, 1988; D.L. Schacter, P.Graf, 1989); Creating a visual combinations (A. Rothenberg, R.S. Sobel,1980; R.A. Finke, 1990).
Creating analogies and metaphors. Interaction between direct and indirect meanings (Interaction theory of metaphor) (Max Black 1962, Marcus Hester 1967); Analogizing as the transfer of knowledge (D. Gentner, C. Toupin, 1983,1986; Lauretta Reeves, Robert W.Weisberg, 1994; K. Holyoak, P. Thagard,1995); Analogical thinking as the ability to make connections between certain objects, concepts or problems (G.A. Davis, 2004); Creating analogies as the transfer of conceptual structures (H.Welling, 2006).
3. Creativity as the creation and realization of the Whole.
Harmonisation of Life Path with the Universal Flow ("The Book of Changes" ("I Ching"), 16th -12th century BC); Actions managed by the universal laws of the Tao, the implementation of the principle of non-actions (wu-wei) (Lao Tsu, 6th c. BC); Imitation (Mimesis) (Democritus, Plato, 5th - 4th c. BC, Aristotle, 4th c. BC); Actions in accordance with the divine cosmic plan, the subordination of nature, following the natural course of things (Stoicism, 4th BC); Imitation of beautiful nature (Charles Batteux, 1746); "Creative synthesis" as the union of the physical elements and as qualitatively unique integrity that define an associative links (W. Wundt, 1880); The openness to the whole, achieving the unity and harmony with the primary entities of the Universe (H. Anderson, 1965); Integrating of a separated parts of knowledge stored in the memory into a coherent whole (W. Keller, 1930; M. Wertheimer, 1945); Finding a balance between subject and object, individual and the universe (S.Arieti, 1976); "Transdimensional transition" from the disjunction to the conjunction, from opposition to the complementarity and to the creation of a metasystem (A.A. Koblyakov, 2003).
Creativity as forming and transformation: Integration of facts, impressions and feelings into a new form (J.D. Porsche, 1955); Creating a new and useful patterns (G.M. Read, 1955); Translation of knowledge and ideas into a new form (A. Duhrssen, 1957); Structuring and the transformation of a meanings of a text as a separate goal and the result of creativity (Roland Barthes, 1957; Julia Kristeva, 1971); The ability to reformulate and reorganize (V. Lowenfeld, 1962); Directed transformations through co-incidence, co-ordination and fittest (D. Feldman,1979); Creativity is the process of generating unique products by transformation of existing products (P. Welch, 1980); Transformative Wisdom (W. Harman, H. Rhengold, 1984); Creativity as a transformative thinking (J.Wycoff, T. Richardson, 1995); Intention to transform the objective world, couple with the ability to decide when this is useful ( M. Runco,1996); Creativity is any act, idea, or product that changes an existing domain, or that transforms an existing domain into a new one (M. Csikszentmihalyi, 1996).
Process: Transformative thinking and insight. Immediately visual grasping of the good structure through insight (W. Keller, 1917; N. Maier, 1931 K. Duncker, 1945; J.W. Schooler, J. Melcher, 1995); The reorganization, regrouping and centering of structures by choosing a good structure (M. Wertheimer, 1945); Visual perception as the creating a complete images and immediate grasping of reality (R. Arnheim, 1954); The transformation of knowledge, creation of new patterns, a transformation of meaning or use the functions of objects in a new way (J. Guilford, 1962, 1967); Problem Solving as the process of integration, reorganization and restructuring of existing experience (M. D. Mumford, K. A. Olsen, L. R.James,1988); The transformation of conceptual spaces (M. Boden, 1990); Reorganization of habitual patterns and creating a new "Mind Maps" (Tony Buzan, 1972, 1974); Insight as executing moves that maximally reduce the distance between current and goal state (J. MacGregor, T. Ormerod, E. Chronicle, 2001); The representational change theory - achievement of insight by geting rid of fixations, self-imposed constraints and interfering associations (R.E. Mayer, 1995; S.M. Smith, 1995; Knoblich, G., Ohlsson, S., G. E. Raney, 2001; A.J.K. Pols, 2002; M.A. Schilling, 2005); Evolutionary theory of insight (Joseph Campbell, 1960; D. Simonton, 1995; A.J.K. Pols, 2002; M.A. Schilling, 2005); The processes of incubation and insight in creative problem solving (S. Ohlsson, 1992; S.M. Smith, R.A. Dodds, 1999); Transformation of meaning as the creation of metaphors (D. S. Miall, 1983); Neurual model of insight (E.M. Bowden, M. Jung-Beeman, J. Fleck, J.Kounios, 2005); Insight as the results of integration of explicit and implicit knowledge and CLARION theory ( S.Helie, R. Sun, 2010).
4. Creativity as the creation and implementation of Possibilities
Creativity as an realization of the "Mystical potency" (Lao-tzu, 6th c. BC); Creativity as "feeding the life" (shang yang), the realization of the "fullness of life characteristics" (Chuang-tzu, 4th c. BC); Emptiness as a treasure and reason of self-generation of things and entities (Nagarjuna, 2nd -3rd c. AD, Wang Bi, 2nd c. AD); Creativity as an «Inventio» and imagination (Lorenzo Valla, Leonardo da Vinci, 15 c.); The creation as a selection of the best of all possible worlds (Gottfried W. Leibniz, 1714); Creativity as the creation of multiple possibilities of being, raising to a higher power and potencies (F. Schelling, 1799, 1803); Creativity as an experience of mystery, implementation of the supernatural, mystical, intimate, wonderful and unknown entities (F. Schlegel, 1799, Novalis, 1837); The mysterious and "essential unpredictability "of creativity (L. Briskman, 1980); Creativity as searching for possibilities, transition from the "is" to the "maybe"( Edward de Bono, 1978); Creativity as creation of the "secondary worlds" and languages construction (J.R.R. Tolkien, 1931); Construction of worlds "phantocreatics" (Stanislaw Lem, 1964); Create a stand-alone possible worlds (R. Bradley, N., Swartz 1980; D. Lewis, 1986; L. Dolezel, 1988; M.L. Rayan, 1991; М. I. Spariosu, 1997); Creation a Fictional Worlds (T. G. Pavel, 1986 ); Creating a virtual worlds (N.A. Nosov, 1994; S.S. Horuzhy, 1997; N.B. Mankovskaya, 2000); Construction of all possible worlds, playing with the text (R. Barthes, 1973; J. L. Borges, 1982; U. Eco, 1983); Creating a system of possible worlds as enhancing creativity (V.S. Efimov, A.V. Laptev, S.V. Ermakov, 1994); Constraction as creating a multiplisity of contingent worlds, potentiation of being, the transition from real to the possible, possibilitation of existence (M. Epstein, 2003); Construction of the Worlds (A.G. Asmolov, V.A. Petrovsky, 2009).
Play as the actualization of individual's and environment's potential. (L.S. Vygotsky, 1933, J. Piaget, 1962; D. Winnicot; James E. Johnson, 1976; G.Fein,1987; S. Ayman-Nolley, 1999; D. Schafer, 2006; B. Pearson, S.W. Russ, , S. Spannagel, 2008).
Possibility thinking (A. Craft, 2000, 2001; B. Jeffrey, 2003, 2005; A. Craft, T. Grainger, P. Burnurd, 2006).
Process: The creative imagination, fantasy.
Consideration of world from the attitude Als ob - “as if” (I. Kant, 1790; Hans Vaihinger, 1911); Construction and potentiation as a free positing of first principles and rising to the higher possibilities (F. Schelling, 1803); Imagination as the highest level of creativity and thinking (I.E. Golosovker, 1961, 1987); Irrational process, a play and the free flight of fantasy (F.Shlegel, 1799, Novalis, 1837); Romanticizing and a qualitative potentization of the world (Novalis, 1837), Fantasies as a unconscious desires fulfillment (love and power) (S. Freud, 1908); Imagination as a unity of mental functions (L.S. Vygotsky, 1930); Creative Imagination: high level integration of creativity and imagery (B. Forisha (1983); The identity of the mechanisms of perception and imagination (S.M. Kosslyn, 1983); Imagination as indirect generation and exploration of mental images (preinventive forms) (R. Finke, 1990; S. M. Kosslyn, 1990; T.B. Ward, 1995; John C. Houtz, C. Patricola, 1999; Arthur I. Miller, 2000; P. Harris, 2000; D.Nettle, 2001; A. R. Damasio, 2001; N. Le Boitiller, D.F. Marks, 2003); Creativity as a fantasy (figurative and verbal elements) (I.M. Rozet, 1991); Creating of the worlds as Recentering (M.L. Rayan, 1991); Creating hypotheses and gaps (lacunas), which activating the imagination and interpretations (L. Dolezel, 1988); The implementation of mechanism and creative technique "What if?» (A. Craft, B. Jeffrey, 2003); Rational imagination as a way to create an alternate reality (R.M.J. Byrne, 2005); Creativity and imagination as an openness and a passion for possibility, for “what could be” (Maxine Greene, 2007).
5. Creativity as achievement and realization of a Freedom
Sunyata as an "emptying of consciousness", releasing from the rigid views and unnecessary attachments (Buddha, 6th. c. BC, Nagarjuna, 2nd -3rd c. AD); Skepticism as the fight against dogma and authority, "refraining from judgments" (Pyrrho, 4th c. BC ); Doubt the reliability of perception (Sextus Empiricus, 2nd c. AD); Free will - free choice of participating in the divine creation (Augustine, 388-395); Creativity as a liberation from the shackles of time, from the bondage of karma, from purpose and result, “dropping of body and mind" and following the inner creative nature (Chan Buddhism, Hueynen, 7- 8 c. AD., Zen Buddhism, Dogen, 13th c.); Free will and creativity as the essence of man, free creative realization of its own nature (Pico della Mirandolla (ed.1496); Free thinking, rejection of dogma, assertion of freedom of the mind, skepticism and doubt as a method of disclosure of internal nature (Montaigne, 1580; B. Pascal (ed.1669), David Hume (1739); The state of the free play of the cognitive faculties" (Kant, 1790); Cognition as a creative expression of freedom, producing a image of the thing, creation of the truth in his own work ((I.G. Fichte, 1797); Awakening of “Dionysian spirit”, annihilation and revaluation of values (F. Nietzsche, 1872); Theory of primitive religion and poetry, as the realization of universal irrational structures (J. Fraser, 1890); Creativity as the free from social constraints, irrational, creative flow of life (W. Dilthey, 1906 ; G. Simmel, 1911; O.Spengler, 1918); Creativity as the vital force or impulse of life (élan vital ) (A. Bergson, 1907); Creativity as an expression , confirmation and realization of substantial freedom (N. Berdyaev, 1911, 1916); Creativity as a phenomenological reduction, transcending of the natural attitude,
purification from reality, and the constitution of meaning (E. Husserl, 1913); "The absolute free will", which arises from the absolute emptiness ("creative nothingness") as the heart of the human and the center of the creative universe (Nishida Kitaro, 1920); Creativity and freedom, as an eternally live spontaneity of human personal spiritual center (M. Scheler, 1927); Movement and occurrence of the thought inside the lumen of freedom (M. Heidegger, 1935); The primordial inner freedom, a free implementation of the project and exercise free choice (J. P Sartre, 1946); Deconstructing the obvious content, provocativness, destruction of centrisms and stereotypes, intellectual game, freedom of interpretation and release of new meanings (J.Derrida, 1967, G. Deleuze, F. Guattari, 1972; J. F. Lyotard, 1979); Theory of "epistemological anarchism" or “methodological liberlism” , principle "Everything is going" (P. Feyerabend, 1975).
Process: Creative intuition, free unconscious activity, transcendence and deconstruction
The theory of accidental discoveries and Serendipity (H. Walpole, 1774; R.M. Roberts, 1989); Destruction, deconstruction, denial, Absurdisation, annihilation of old and unimportant, reappraisal (Max Stirner, 1844, Friedrich Nietzsche, 1886, Heidegger , 1927; J.P. Sartre, 1943, Camus, 1951, Keiji Nishitani, 1967 J. Derrida, 1967), Intuition as instinct (A. Bergson, 1907); Realization of unconscious desires, general unconscious mechanisms and free associations (S. Freud, 1908, 1938); Creativity as "transcendence", as life’s and person’s reaching beyond itself (G. Simmel, 1911); Subconscious creativity and intuition (A . Poincaré, 1913, Hadamard, 1945); Creativity as the unity of a free existence and transcendence, as overcoming of the boundary situations (K. Jaspers, 1935); Discovery and creativity as irrational, intuitive processes (H. Reichenbach, 1938 K. Popper , 1968); "Regression in the service of the ego" (E. Kris, 1957); Preconscious activity (L.S. Kubie, 1958); Paleologic thinking (transformations of endocepts) (S. Arieti, 1976); Deviation from the usual ways of problem solving and overcoming functional fixedness (N. R. F. Maier, 1931; K. Duncker, 1945; R.E. Adamson, 1952; T.P German, H.C., Barrett, 2005); Destructive process of breaking old patterns (H.A. Shepard, 1957); Adventurous thinking (F. C. Bartlett, 1958); Divergent thinking: fluency, flexibility, originality, elaboration, ability to generate multiple ideas (J. Guilford, 1959); Lateral thinking (E. De Bono, 1967); Theory of random variation (D. Campbell, 1960) and chance configurations (D. Simonton, 1988); "Deconstruction", "destruction/reconstruction" of a text (J. Derrida, 1967); Creation of structures, moving mosaic of fundamentally secondary discrete elements, which are permanently altering its configuration relative to each other (R. Barthes, 1972); Creativity as a libaration of the unconscious (W. Harman, H. Rheingold, 1984); Kaleidoscope thinking (M. Kanter, 1988); Creative Problem-Solving Through Dreams (P. Garfield, 1974; R.D.Cartwright, 1974; M. Schatzman (1983), S. Krippner, J. Dillard, 1988; D.Barrett, 1993, 2007; G.L.White, L. Taytroe (2003); U. Wagner, S. Gais, H. Haider, R. Verleger, J. Born, 2004; T. Stumbrys, 2009); Blind variations and chance configurations (D. Simonton, 1993); Deep unconscious cognitive activation (D.M. Wegner, L. Smart, 1997); Creative emergence as sudden arising of new patterns and structures possessing new properties, “self-trancedentindg construction” (J. Goldstein,1999, S. Strogatz, 2003); Creativity as an activating Unconscious Thought and awakening of background knowledge (A. Dijksterhius, T. Meurs, L.F. Nordgen, 2006; M.W. Bos, R.B.Baaren, 2008; C.B. Zhong, A, A. D. Galinsky, 2008; Simone M. Ritter, Rick B. van Baaren, A. Dijksterhuis, 2011); Creativity as using of chaotic process of the unconscious (N.C. Andreasen, 2011).
Intuition. Intuition as a creative process (F. Vaughan, 1979; J. Metcalfe, D. Wiebe, 1987; K.S. Bowers, G. Regehr, C. Balthazard, K. Parker, 1990; W. Wippich, 1994; J. Langan-Fox, D. Shirley, 2003; A. Bolte, T. Goschke, 2005; Gladwell, M. 2005; Zhou Zhijin, Zhao Xiaochuan, Liu Chang, 2005); Intuition, creativity, dialogue and tacit knowledge (M. Quinn, 2002);
Emotion and intuition (A. Bolte, T. Goschke, J. Kuhl, 2003); Manifestation of the "intellectual subconscious» (G. Claxton, 2005); A fundamental bridging construct in the behavioural sciences (G.P. Hodgkinson, J. Langan-Fox, E. Sadler-Smith, 2008); Intuition as a Problem-solving (J.I. Fleck, J. Kounios, 2009); Strategic intuition and decision-making (N. Khatri, 2000, G. Klein, 2003; W. Duggan, 2007); The use of intuition in education (R.M. Hogarth, 2001); Intuition in business and practical life (LA Robinson, 2006; K. Cloninger, 2006).
Manifistations of Creativity in the phenomenal worlds
Creative Problem Solving
Realization of Creative attitude,
1. Creativity as realization of creative attitude, strategies, techniques and styles, as a creative reflection, and metacognitive regulation and Sense -creation
Creativity as a governance with the help of the sample and the virtues and bringing things into order (Confucius, 6-5th. cc. BC.); Taking a stand of the center, "Axis of Tao", balancing, maintaining openness, emptiness and susceptibility (Lao Tzu, 6-5th. cc. BC, Chuang Tzu, 4-3cc. BC); Creativity as an implementation of Method - "New Organon" (F. Bacon, 1620); The method of reasoning and searching for the truth (R. Descartes, 1637); Determining unconscious tendency that guides the process and persists in problem solving (O. Külpe, 1883); Special "task mental set" (H. Watt, 1906); Determining tendencies of thinking in problem solving (N. Ach, 1910); Anticipative "schema," or an organizing mental principle (O.Selz, 1924), The implementation of creative dominant (A.A. Ukhtomsky, 1922); Creative set and activation of the unconscious (D. Uznadze, 1949); Creativity as a special state of mind, the Creative Attitude, the ability to see the world (E. Fromm, 1959,1970); Creative dispositions (G. Allport, 1961; D. Perkins, E. Jay, S. Tishman,1993; A. Galdova, A. Nelicki,1993); Creative Attitude (A.Maslow, 1963; R. Taft, M.B. Gilchrist,1970; C.E. Schaefer,1971; R.C. Schank, P. G. Childers, 1988; R. Harris,1998); Creative Stance (S.J. Parnes,1967; K. Szmidt, 1997).
Implementation of Creative Method (A. Osborne, 1953; W. Gordon, 1961 G.S. Altshuller, 1961; S. Parnes, 1967; E. de Bono, 1967; T. Buzan, 1972; D.Koberg, J. Bagnall, 1976; Arthur В. VanGundy, 1983; Roger von Oech, 1983; M. Michalko, 1991);
Creative cognitive styles (M.J. Kirton, 1976; L.D. Noppe, J.M. Gallagher, 1977; S. Messick, 1984; R.E. Goldsmith,1987; S.F.Isaksen, 1987; G.J. Puccio,1987; S. J. Guastello, J. Shissler, J. Driscoll, T. Hyde ,1998; I. Al-Sabaty, G. A. Davis, 1989; R.Schulz,1989; E.Zilevich,1988; K.B. Dorval, G. Kaufmann, 1991; S.F. Isaksen, G.J. Puccio, D.J. Treffinger, 1993; E. L. Grigorenko, R. J. Sternberg, 1995; C.W. Allinson, J. Hayes,1996; K. Szmidt,1997; O. Martinsen, G. Kauffman,1999; Jos Lemmink, Allard C.R. van Riel, Hans Ouwersloot, 2006; L.F. Zhang, R.J. Sternberg, 2006, E. Cools, H.van den Broeck, 2007);
Intuitive style of unconscious information processing and problem-solving (H. Poincaré, 1908; C.G. Jung, 1921; K.S. Bowers, G. Regehr, C. Blthazard, 1990; E. Policastro, 1995; R. Sternberg, T. Lubart, 1995; C. W. Allinson, E. Chell, J. Hayes, 2000; A.M. Baulor, 2001; D.J. Myers, 2002; J. Langan-Fox, D. Shirley, 2003; E. Necka, 2003; M. Karwowski, 2008); Creative (legislative) style of thinking (R.J. Sternberg, T. Lubart, 1995); Cognitive styles, metacognitive regulation of intellectual activity (M.A. Kholodnaja, 2004); Creative reflection, metacognitive regulation and awareness of mental strategies (J. H. Flavell, 1976, I.N Semenov, S.J., Stepanov, 1985; A.L. Costa,1987; R. Sternberg, 1988; V. G. Bogin, 1993; A Demetriou, S. Kazi, 2006); Strategies of creativity and genius (G.S. Altshuller, I.M. Vertkin, 1994; R. Dilts, 1994).
Creativity as a creation of new meanings. Generation of new meanings through a free interpretation (F. Nietzsche, 1988); Individual attaches the subjective meaning to their actions and intends the meaning on a particular historical occasion (M. Weber, 1904, 1922); Creativity as sense-giving acts and process of senses or meanings (Sinne) constituting (E. Husserl, 1913); Creative principle of synchronicity as the coincidence of causally unrelated events having identical or similar meaning (C. Jung, 1920); Listening to Being and seeing the true essences and senses of Being (M. Heidegger, 1927); Creativity as inner speech, which is to a large extent thinking in pure meanings; expanding individual and cultural meaning; bring a new sense into the phenomenon's social meaning; "the clarification of meanings and the establishment of values" (L.Vygotsky,1931, 1934); Choosing of the initial project as a source of polyvalent meanings (Z.P.Sartr, 1943); Giving a meaning to phenomena through existential a priori structures (L. Binswanger, 1958 R.May, 1969); Searching and finding of a new meanings (V. Frankl, 1959); Potentiation of the text, multiplication of its semantic possibilities (G. Bataille, 1949); Generation of new meanings and overcoming functional fixedness’s by the using a complex analogy (W. Gordon, 1961); Spontaneous generation and construction of meanings by the text, a systematic releasing of multiple meaning (R. Barthes, 1964); Cosmological commitment as a powerful motive to create meaning and to leave a testament of the meaning which that individual found in the world, and in himself in relation to the world"(F.Barron, 1965); Deconstruction as destroing/constructing of meanings, breaking with every given context, and engender infinitely new contexts, eternal interplay and free play of meaning, dissemination and divided generation of meaning, undoing, decomposing, desedimenting and destroying, reconstructing of structures and constituting of an ‘ensemble’ of meanings (J. Darrida, 1967,1972); Event or emission of singularities creates new sense (G. Deleuze, 1969); Artistic creative sensibility as intuitive discoursing of inherent senses and meanings (R. Arnheim, 1969); Divergent thinking as the stretching of sense ( J. Guilford, 1970); The meaningful interpretation of clusters of sensory stimuli (C. Castaneda, 1971); Generation of meaning through the "primacy of context over text", the hybrid nature of language and the relation between utterances or dialogical interplay of multiple voices (M. Bakhtin, 1975); Spontaneous unpacking of the meanings which are inherent in the World (V. V. Nalimov 1978); “Grand narratives” or metanarratives, which give meaning to the worlds, “language games”, “phrase regimens”, the innumerable and incommensurable separate systems which produce multiple meanings (J.F. Lyotard, 1979, 1983); Chaos/complexity, flow of transformation as a state in which forms appear, "rhizomatic" as a condition for free, multiple and non-hierarchical interpretation (G. Deleuze, F.Guattari,1980); Spontaneous self-generation of preconceptual meanings (E.Gendlin, 1981); Generation of meanings as lingvisation of the World (R. von Eckartsberg, 1981); Intertextuality and symbolic imagination as a source of generation and renewal of meanings (U. Eco, 1983); Transformation of meaning as context and content reframing (R. Bandler, J. Grinder, 1983); Creating semantic horizon and contexts, activation of unopened meaning (K. Swassjan, 1987); Sense–generation (В.S.Вrаtus, 1994; D.A. Leontiev, 1999; S.V. Dmitriev, 2001), Sense-construction (F. Е. Vasilyuk, 1984); Creative understanding as the extraction, transmission and generation of new meanings (V.P.Zinchenko, 1997); Sense-creation (A.A.Osanov); Potentiation is a positive deconstrection, as reconstruction of potentialities, the method and the process of multiplication of meanings (M.Epstein,2001).
Creating new meanings through metaphors. Metaphors, tropes, figurative language as the first expressions and the primary sources of meaning (J.J. Rousseau, 1754,1781); The involuntary nature of the images, similes and metaphors as the truest and simplest means of expression (F. Nietzsche,1888).
Interactive theory: Metaphor, as creating meaning through the interaction of two thoughts – “vehicle” and “tenor” (I.A. Richards, 1936), interaction between the “focus” and frame”, idea of “associated commonplaces,” (M. Black, 1954, 1962); interaction between the primary an secondary subjects (M.C. Beardsley,1962); Metaphors put two domains together (W.H.Gass,1970); Metaphor involves the transfer of a schema between disjoint realms. (N.Goodman,1976); Transfer and "mapping" from a source cognitive model to a target domain, which means that "metaphor operates between domains" (E.E.Sweetser, 1990); Process of connection and comparison between two familiar concepts acts as generators for new meaning" (D.F.N. Jensen, 2006).
Pragmatic Twist Accounts and Speech Act Theory. "A theory of language is part of a general theory of action" Metaphorical meaning is the speaker's utterance meaning, which distinguishing from "word/sentence meaning." (J.R.Searle, 1969,1979), Metaphor concerns what speakers mean as opposed to what their words mean. Creating own new, original, or poetic meaning is saying through normal everyday meanings. (O.Barfield, 1962, T. Cohen, 1975, Davidson,1984;P. Grice, 1989; L. Horn, 2004).
Metaphor as shifting of attitude, as seeing things in a new way. Metaphora based on aesthetic perception, "seeing as" or perspectival seeing (L.Wittgenstein, 1953, R. Aldrich,1958, M. Hester,1966); Metaphor –in which one, iconic component presents other and induces similarities ( P. Henle,1958); Сreative metaphor as gaining a new perspective on object, situation or phenomenon (making the familiar strange, seeing a familiar objects as if they were not familiar, W.Gordon,1961, 1965; displacement of Concepts, D.A.Schon 1963, 1979); New meaning as a result shifting of attitude, viewing something in a certain way (M. Black, 1962); Visual methapor uses an image to create the link between different ideas (V.C Aldrich, 1968); Seeing as is seeing the similar in the dissimilar (P. Recoer,1975); Metaphor as non-visual seeing as (W. Snibles, 1976), Metaphor as a model for changing our way of looking at things, of perceiving the world (P.Ricoeur,1978); Creativity as humor and metaphor (W. Snibles, 1976,1984); Metaphors are like words of fiction: a novel metaphor creates a new view of the subject, suggests new perspectives (I.Loewenberg, 1978); Crucial role of imagination's functions of seeing and picturing as ability to produce new kinds by assimilation, in metaphor making (P. Ricoeur, 1979); Ontological metaphors are the "ways of viewing events, activities, emotions, ideas, etc., as entities and substances" (G. Lakoff, M. Johnson, 1980); Мetaphors as creative perception (C.Dent-Read, A.Szokolszky 1993); Generating new perceptions and inventions (F.R. Ankersmit, J.J.A. Mooij, 1993); Metaphor as seeing one thing in terms of another, see part of reality in terms of a (metaphorical) point of view, making the unfamiliar familiar (F.R. Ankersmit, 1994); Metaphor as vision or mental model of environments (sensemaking) and articulating that model to other (sensegiving) (R.Hill,1995); Creative organizational vision building through collaborative, visual-metaphorical thought (D. Ambrose,1998); “The application of familiar operations to a different sets of objects resulted in a novel perspective”. (B. Indurkhya, 2010).
Metaphor in Creative Cognition and Cognitive Linguistics: Metaphors are catalysts in the creative growth of language; they extend meaning, making the unconscious conscious, increasing accuracy and variety (Owen,1962); Metaphor as two-way influence between language and imaginary, meaning and imagery (M. Hester, 1967); Metaphor necessarily occurs in any language that could ever claim to embody richness and depth of understanding (C. M.Turbayne, 1970); Metaphors as creative use of polysemy – new meaning is metamorphosis of language and reality (P.Ricoeur,1973); Metaphora as mechanism of generating new meaning (J. Lotman, 1973); Metaphor as creation of meaning by the interpretation of reality in diverse ways (P. Ricœur, 1975); Metaphorical discourse ‘invents’ in both senses of the word: what it creates, it discovers; and what it finds, it invents (P. Ricoeur, 1978); The creative dimension of language consonant with the creative aspect of reality itself (P. Ricoeur, 1978); Imagination projects itself onto the structure of language to make metaphorizing possible (D. Davidson 1978, 1980); Metafor acts highlight unnoticed properties of the topic (A. Ortony, 1979); The emergence of metaphoric language and making sense of literal and nonliteral falsehood (E. Winner, 1979, 1988); Conceptual metaphor is "imaginative rationality”, it creates similarities ( G.Lakoff, M.Johnson (1980); Language grows and expands meaning by means of metaphors. (R. von Eckartsberg, 1981); Similarity is a product of categorisation (S.Glucksberg, B. Keysar 1990); Producing of a new meanings by interaction between concepts, “theory of conceptual blending” (G. Fauconnier, M. Turner 1995); Metaphor is the very stuff of high-level mental representation. (T.Veale, 1995); Poetic metaphor as creating the similarities between two objects or situations (M.Gineste, B.Indurkhya, V.Scart-Lhomme 1997; M.Nueckle, D.Jantezko 1997; R.Tourangeau, L. Rips 1991). Metaphor making and processing as overlap between constitutive (imagination-rationality), and interpretative (convention-intention) pairs (Z. Maalej, 1999, 2008); Metaphor as Re-Representation and Creative Analogy,humor, Ironic Similes Creative Mis-Representation in the Construction of Ironic Similes (T. Veale, 2006. 2012); "Blends," in which conceptually fusing or integrating of various elements from two or more domains, or frames (M.Turner, 1996; Fauconnier, M.Turner, 2002); Combine perceptual, experiential and conceptual aspects of different concepts subconsciously to generate new insights (G. Fauconnier, M. Tuner, 2002); Metaphor as construal operations (perspective, gestalt structuring) (A. Cruse, W.Croft 2004). Metaphor as simultaneous mirroring and mapping (M.C.Flannery, 2009).
Nonlinguistic metaphors and Conceptual Metaphor: Nonlinguistic (musical, painting, dancing) metaphors, as a way of expressing of personal world and human emotions (L. Meyer,1956, Whittock, T. ,1992; M. Blechner, 2001 Johnson, M., Larson, S. , 2003); Metaphor as a maker of novel creates new possible world (I. Loewenberg, 1978); Metaphors as an effective mechanism for the co- construction and expansion of culture, metaphors are pervasive in everyday life, not just in language, but also in thought and action. Metaphor as organizing conceptual system, reorganizing the topic and creation of new features (G.Lakoff, M.Johnson, 1980, G. Lakoff, 1987); Metaphors create similarities (ontological link) and conceptualize experience (epistemological link) (M. Johnson, 1981) Metaphor as dreamwork and irrationality (M. Cavell, 1986); Metaphors "that are most alive and most deeply entrenched, efficient, and powerful are those that are so automatic as to be unconscious and effortless." (G. Lakoff, M. Tuner, 1989); The metaphorical statement implies to mind a imaginative game of make-believe. (K. Walton, 1990,1993); Metaphora as theoretical foundation by integrating many theories of creativity (D. Ambrose, 1996); Model of emotional resonance shows how creative people with the help of metaphor can access and associate concepts (I.Getz, T.I.Lubart, 1998); Metaphorical polysemy and corpus-based research into metaphor (A. Deignan, 1999 2003); Metaphors as revealing of complex processes and patterns, and making implicit imaginal processes more explicit through social interaction (C. Schank ,V. John-Steiner, 2001); Metaphor as a research tool, as a teaching tool, as a generative tool for creative thinking, perception and interpretation (D. Inns, 2002, J. Gaddefors, 2007); Metaphor as interaction of two imaginative activity –pretense and seeing - as E.Camp (2003, 2009); Effect of cross-culturally using metaphors (A. Deignan, 2003, T. Grisham, 2006); Emergence of metaphor in discourse (L. Cameron, A. Deignan, 2006), Patterns of metaphor use in reconciliation talk (L. Cameron, 2007b). Metaphor as descriptive tool which "can create an understanding of a scientific principle in the mind of an artist or a young student, a sales manager or subsistence farmer"( J. Harris, B.K. Barnes, 2006); “Appropriate body action, or even imagined action, enhances people's embodied, metaphorical construal of abstract concepts” (N.L. Wilson, R.W. Gibbs, 2007); Metaphor is a multifaceted, valuable tool that gives dimension to language, create complexity, give clarity, and develop creativity (R. B. Van Engen,2008); "Pressure of coherence": the pressure of their bodily experiences and the pressure of the context that surrounds them. In later and more recent studies (Z. Kovecses, 2008, 2009); Metaphorical creativity as result of four common conceptual devices or strategies of elaboration,extension, questioning, and combining (Z. Kovecses, 2009); Context-induced metaphors are resulting from the social-cultural-personal background and lending coherent meaning structures to particular poems (M.J.Landau, B.R.Meier, L.A.Keefer , 2010); Metaphor Analysis (metaphor-led discourse analysis), using metaphor as research tool (L. Cameron, R. Maslen, Z. Todd, J. Maule, P. Stratton, N. Stanley, 2009, 2010); Metaphor as a mode and vehicle of thought, creative tool knowledge-building and communication ( J. Ox, J. Van Der Elst, 2011); The persuasive power of metaphor in Politics and rhetoric ( J. Chateris-Black, 2005); Communication-based theory of metaphor (L.D. Ritchie, 2006); Metaphors as a Tool to Decipher Tacit Aspects and unconscious meaning (T. Steger, 2007); Significance of metaphor in language, thought, culture, education and artistic expression. (G.D. Low, 2008); Сontext as the source of meanings “Only in the context of a speech act does a sentence express a determinate content”(F. Recanati, 2004; Ch.Travis, 2008).
Metaphors as A Valuable tools organizations tackle and way to create a positive environment: Using metaphor is a valuable tool for leaders/followers for enhancing communication in organizations and (K.Weick, 1979); Tools for shaping the organizational culture by presenting reality in a creative way, by creating new ideas, and by shaping vision (G.Morgan, 1997); Metaphor "gives life to vision" and enabled leaders to develop a "shared identity" with followers (J. M., Kouzes, B. Z.Posner 2002); "Stories, allegories, and metaphors are fast and powerful leadership tools for communicating complex concepts in unforgettable ways" (J. Harris, K. B. Barnes, 2006); Metaphor creates clarity by comparing confusing ideas with known objects allowing the audience to understand what is being communicated (G. Leder, 2007); "Metaphors help constitute the realities we live in. Metaphors give groups and organizations a sense of direction, history, and values" (F. Gerritsen, 2006); The use of metaphors, storytelling, and poetry in the leadership (T. Grisham 2006); Makes mention of “insights from metaphors” and “how metaphors take part in the construction of the environment (J. Gaddefors, 2007); Metaphor as a means to understanding complex and abstract ideas and organizational leadership (G.B.Linn, R.Sherman, P.B. Gill, 2007).
Meaning-making and meaning construction: Creativity as inner speech, which is to a large extent thinking in pure meanings; expanding individual and cultural meaning; bring a new sense into the phenomenon's social meaning; "the clarification of meanings and the establishment of values" (L. Vygotsky,1934); Understanding old words with new meanings (H.H. Clark, R. J. Gerrig,1983); Meaning-sense operation of creativity as a process of searching through a state space of possibilities and ultimately finding the best solution by expanding the state space itself (M. Boden, 1990); Interpretation of meanings and meaning-making as specification the structure and coherence of the larger contexts in which specific meanings are created and transmitted. (J. Bruner 1990); Сreation of intentional worlds from the meanings gathering from their sociocultural environments (R. Shweder, 1990); Meaning construction as processes of schematization, synesthesia, secondary intersubjectivity and “the creative construction of idiosyncratic analogies, primitive sensory metaphors” (B. Shore, 1991); Meaning and knowledge construction by means of mental manipulation, visualization, and the process of developing, testing and discarding hypotheses (G. Shank, 1992); The transformation of sense into meaning based on cognitive pluralism (V.John-Steiner, 1995); Creativity as the searching for meaning and interaction between fluctuating, condensed, generative and expanded thought (V. John-Steiner, 1995, 1997); Experience of new meaning-making flows (M. Chicszentmihalyi, 1996, 2003); Creative thought starts as an imaginary "sense" of how things might be, which is transformed into meaning and externally expressed in an reality (R.S. Prawat, 1999); Creativity operates through the person appropriating, making sense and meaning from, and externalizing tools, signs and artifacts (S. Moran, V. John-Steiner, 2002); Aestethic Making meaning about art (G.Kress, 1977; B. Duffy 1998; N. Paley,1988; Savva Trimis, 2005; B. Duffy, 2002; J. E. Maisel,2009); Meaning-making and values- realizing is not possessed by individuals but is interdependent with the ecosystem in which the conversation partners and other affordances function in flux (D. Larsen- Freeman, L. Cameron 2008); Meaning-making on various learner trajectories: values-realizing and sensory experiences of the body (enkinaesthesia) (B.H.Hodges 2009; S.A. Stuart 2010).
Cognitive model of meaning-making. Creating meanings as Sense-Giving and Sense-Reading, the acts which possess the structure of tacit knowing; (M. Polanyi, 1969); Creating meanings founded upon the creative imagination which synthesizes the chaotic elements of life in conformity with scientific, valid modes of knowledge (M. Polanyi, H.Prosch,1975); Two ways of meaning constructing: through new experiences, or through contemplation and recalled experiences. (M. Poplin, 1991); Making meaningful knowledge constructions as a process of experimentation (Shank, 1992); recognizing meanings of artifacts, and interpretation these meanings from their own perspectives (G. Stahl, 2002); Meaning-making as a product of continuous cognitive recursion: “creativity is mixing and matching patterns of everything you've ever experienced or come to know in your lifetime” (J. Hawkins, 2004); Meaning –making as recursion and recursive negotiation between remembered constructs and new inputs, “all meaning comes from analogies” (D. Hofstadter, 2007); Theory of multimodal meaning-making as complementary process of transformation and trunsduction, which are the engine that drives synaesthesia and the emergent creation of qualitatively new forms of meaning (G. Kress, 2003); Making meaning – learning through logovisual thinking. (B. Best, A. Blake J. Varney, 2005); Seeking Meaning and Making Sense ( J. Haldane, 2008); Constructing multimodal perspectives of language by means of making meaning (M. J. Narey, 2007, 2009).
Constructions of meaning. The constructivist idea of constructing meanings : сognition and learning as active seeking meaning and meaning making. Personal meaning making is inevitable. Constructivists conceptual model of meaning-making (Ch. Peirce, 1955); Meaning making and understanding as invention based on the processes of assimilation and accommodation (J. Piaget,1972, 1977); The process of constructing ones knowledge involve both cognitive and physical constructions of meaning, through the development of mental models or schemas (P.M. Johnson-Laird, 1980; S.Harel, S. Papert, 1991); Radical version of acquisition of knowledge as “meaning making and interpreting” (E.von Glasersfeld, 1981); Making sense of our experience is equivalent to meaning making (P. Cobb, L. Steffe, 1983; G. H. Wheatley, 1991; M.D. Hardy, P.S. Taylor, 1998; L. Splitter, 2008); Making meaning through mental image, visual thinking and visualization (M. Poplin, 1991; D. Cunningham, 1992; R. Solso, 1994; B. Mones-Hattal, E. Mandes, 1995); Knowledge and meaning construction through mental manipulation, visualization, and the process of developing, testing and discarding hypotheses (G.Shank, 1992); “We make our world through incessant experience, categorization, memory, reconnection” (O. Sacks, 1995); Shaping and evolving of social meanings through sharing and negotiation within the communicating groups (R.Prawat, R. Floden, 1994; M.E. Gredler, 1997; M.D. Hardy, P.S. Taylor, 1998; P. Ernest, 1999); The construction of knowledge and producing of meanings through intersubjective dialogue within cultures (R. Prawat, R. Floden, 1994; M.E. Gredler, 1997; M. McMahon, 1997; D.H. Shunk, 2000); Meaning-making in the virtual world (K. M. Osberg, 1997; J. R.Martin, P.R. White, 2005; C. M.L. Ho, A. M.H. Ong, 2007; L.ErkenBrack, 2009, D. Zheng, K. Newgarden, 2012).
Creativity as Sensemaking. Sensemaking which based on "skill in the process of knowledge-getting" (J. S. Bruner, 1966, J. Osland, A. Bird, 2000); Cognitive model of sensemaking: individuals and organisations make sense of and act within their environments according to their cognitive frameworks through the proper¬ties of the methods they use (R. Abelson 1976; S.Fiske, S. Taylor 1991; W.Bogner, P. Barr 2000. P Zhang, J. Klavans, D. Oard, D. Soergel, 2008); Sensemaking as a building of sensible, meaningful expla¬nations , extracting of evidence and then linking it to already existing structures (J.G.March, J.P. Olsen, 1976; J. Porac , H.Thomas , C. Baden-Fuller 1989; G.C. Hopkinson 2001;); Sensemaking is the process by which people give meaning to lived experience, complex and unfamiliar situations and structure the unknown (K. Weick, 1979); Sensemaking as providing insight into uncertain or ambiguous situations at the organizational level (K. Weick, 1988, 1995; R. Drazin, M. A. Glynn, R. Kazanjian, 1999; K. Weick, M. Sutcliffe, D. Obstfeld, 2005); Individual sensemaking as underlying the "cognitive gap", substantiates learning, adapting and responding to unexpected or unknown situations, based on each participant's point of view. (B. Dervin, 1983, 2003); ”The basic idea of sensemaking is that reality is an ongoing accomplishment that emerges from efforts to create order and make retrospective sense of what occurs” (K.Weick, 1993); Sense making involves placing items in frameworks, comprehending, understanding, interpreting and constructing meanings (K.Weick, 1995); Metacognition model of sense-making which involves processes recognizing, critiquing, correcting, building verifying, and modifying models of unrecognised situation (M.S. Cohen, J.T. Freeman, S. Wolf, 1996); Sensemaking is a process in which a person's, a group's or an organisation's understanding of a situation, rather than the situation's objective properties shapes the way that a person, group or organisation acts in the situation. (B. Czarniawska 1997, 1999); Cognitive model of visual sensemaking as interacting with and operating on the information with a variety of information processing mechanisms (E H. Chi, S. K. Card, 1999); Sense- making by preceding decision-making, framing the range, reach and depth of forthcoming decisions. (A.G. Woodside 2001); Sensemaking as the process of verbalisations that involve information, knowledge, cognition, thoughts, and conclusions. Methods of sensemaking include attitudes, beliefs, values, emotions and also intuition, memories, stories, and narratives. (B. Dervin, L. Foreman-Wernet, E. Layterbach, 2002); Reconstruction of existing perspectives, frameworks, or premises on a daily basis through a continuous process of knowledge creation (I.Nonaka, R.Toyama, P. Byoiere, 2003); "Sense-Making reconceptualizes factizing as one of the useful verbings humans use to make sense of their worlds" (B. Dervin, 2003); Making sense of events based on some perspective, viewpoint, or framework (G.Klein, J.K., Phillips, E., Rall, D.A. Peluso, 2004); Sensemaking as creation of mental models that can be used to think of problems, and solutions, in new ways ( D.J. Snowden, C.F.Kurtz, 2003, D.J. Snowden, 2005); Creative leadership as the art of making sense based on realization of sensemaking loop that include paying attention, personalizing, imaging, serious play, collaborative inquiry, and crafting (Ch. J. Palus, D. M. Horth, 2005); Sensemaking as gap-bridging, which is rooted in time and space, and occurs at the intersection of three horizons: the past, present, and future by applying the "Futures Research Methodology - V 2.0" working with foresight, hindsight and insight (M. Aaltonen, T. Barth, 2005); Sensemaking is the process of creating situational awareness and understanding in situations of high complexity or uncertainty in order to make decisions; Sensemaking is an active two-way process of fitting data into a frame (mental model) and fitting a frame around the data; sensemaking as "a motivated, continuous effort to understand connections (which can be among people, places and events) in order to anticipate their trajectories and act effectively" (G.Klein, B. Moon, R.F. Hoffman, 2006); Sensemaking as the process of modeling and creating a representation of a collection of information (D.Russell, P. Pirolli, 2009); Sensemaking as a larger way of viewing the world and situations that occur in it, as process of changing of frames - certainly subjective and often biasing point of view, frames as an active perspective that both describes and perceptually changes a given situation; Sensemaking is a constant process of acquisition, reflection, and action. It is an action oriented cycle that people continually and fairly automatically go through in order to integrate experiences into their understanding of the world around them. (J.Kolko, 2010).
Sensemaking as narrative construction. Sensemaking is a social activity in that plausible stories are preserved, retained or shared (L.Isabella, 1990; S. Maitlis, 2005); People enact the environments they face in dialogues and written and spoken narratives (J. Bruner, 1991; B.Czarniawska,1997; 2004; T.J. Watson, 1998, 2009; G.Currie, A. Brown, 2003; A. D.Brown, P. Stacey, J. Nandhakumar, 2007; M. Abolafia, 2010); Sensemaking as narrative process, accomplished through storytelling, and helping individuals map their reality ( K. Weick, 1999; A.P. Bochner, 2001; E.M. Eisenberg, 2007); "... sensemaking is, importantly, an issue of language, talk, and communication. Situations, organizations, and environments are talked into existence... Sensemaking is about the interplay of action and interpretation rather than the influence of evaluation on choice." (K. E. Weick, K. M Sutcliffe, D. Obstfeld, 2005).
Cultural model of sensemaking: Cultural sensemaking refers to the processes by which people make sense of and explain culturally different behaviors (J. Osland, A. Bird, 2000); Cultural sensemaking as asking explanation-based questions that can explicitly challenge the fundamental assumptions underlying the conception of a culture (W. R. Sieck, J. L Smith, L. J. Rasmussen, 2008); Cultural sensemaking competence as a high level metacognitive skills, perspective taking and culture's decision making within specific contexts (L. J. Rasmussen, W. R. Sieck, J. Osland, 2010); Cultural sensemaking based on employing the Cultural Network Analysis process for creating cultural models (P. Smart, 2010); Trigger events or occasions that lead people to notice cultural differences, which generate opportunities for intercultural sensemaking. (J. Osland, A. Gundersen, A. Bird, 2011).
Process of sense creation. Processing model of sense creation which suggests that sense selection and sense creation coexist and operate simultaneously (R.J. Gerrig,1989); Adult age differences in interpretations and sense creation (E. M. Zelinski, J.C.Hyde, 1996); Sense Creation in and out of Discourse Contexts interpretations, “meaning recovery in discourse contexts is affected by out of discourse context” (R. J. Gerrig, H. Bortfeld,1999).
2. Creativity as a productive activity.
Taking the transcendental position, seeing inaction in action, and action in inaction, engaged in all sorts of activities, without desire for material profit that converts every activity into a meditation on the Absolute ("Bhagavad Gita", 2c. BC - 2 c. AD); Ingenuity (inventio) (Lorenzo Valla, Leonardo da Vinci, 15 c.); Act of the self-activity of the subject (I. Kant, 1781); The creative power of man, which is realized in the ceaseless activity, the primacy of practice over the contemplation (G. Fichte, 1794); Method of Trial and Error (T. Torondayk, 1911); Manipulation of the material and ideal objects (J.Watson, 1928); Creativity as productive and transforming activity (S. Rubinstein, 1946); Creation of new work, that is accepted as novel, reliable, useful and satisfying by a group (M. Stein, 1953); The process by which something new is made - an idea, an object, the form (L. Harmon, 1955); The manipulation of external symbols or objects to produce unusual or extraordinary product (L. Fliegler, 1959); Behavioral model of creativity (B. Skinner, 1976); Object-practical, transforming activity aimed at purposeful change and transformation of the world (E.G.Yudin, 1978); Creativity as the creation of a creative product (D. MacKinnon, 1978); A series of thoughts, acts and functions that lead to the emergence of the product with the attributes of novelty and positive values (A. Rothenberg, 1979); Productive activity aimed at the creative product (H. Gruber, 1981); Activities that result in the creation of new material and spiritual values, the new social significant product (A.P. Sheptulin, 1983, A. T. Shumilin, 1989); "A person's capacity to produce new or original ideas, insights, restructurings, inventions, or artistic objects, which are accepted by experts as being of scientific, aesthetic, social, or technological value" (P.Vernon, 1984); Creativity as the creation of a new and socially valuable products (M. Mumford, S. Gustafson, 1988); Creativity as an innovation and implementation of creative ideas into practice (A.H. Van de Den, 1986; R. Kanter, 1988; M. Mumford, S. Gustafson, 1988; T. Amabile, 2000, M.A. West, 2002); Relationships between creative styles and creative products (G.J. Puccio, D.J. Treffinger, R.J. Talbot, 1995).
Creative product as a model of creativity (I.A.Taylor, B.J.Sandler, 1972; W.C.Ward, P.W.Cox, 1974; D. MacKinnon, 1978; L.Briskman, 1980; T.Amabile, 1982, 1983, 1996; Pearlman, 1983; K.B. Dorval, D.J. Treffinger, K. O'Quinn, 1990; S. P. Besemer, K. O’Quinn, 1987, 1993; R. Firestien, 1993; S.G. Isaksen,1994).
Creativity, as the creating of the product, which is characterized by:
1. Novelty (originality, uniqueness, unexpectedness, uncommonness, rareness, unpredictably) Originality and uncommonness (J.P.Guilford,1950); Novelty (D.N. Morgan,1953, C.R. Hausman, 1987); Rareness (R. Milgram, 1976); Novelty as essential element of unpredictably (L. Briksman, 1880); Novel creative product is a “new type” (C.R. Hausman, 1987); Kind of novelty: big ‘C’ the creativity of the genius and little ‘c’ for the more widely available type (M. Stein.1987); Continuum of novelty : from correction to qualitative transformation, innovative and adaptive novelty (M.Kirton,1989; G. Kaufmann,1993; L. Novelli, 1993); Private/Psychological Novelty and Public/Historic Novelty (M. Boden, 1994; H. Eysenck, 1994); Novelty as unexpectedness, unpredictability or surprising (F. Barron, 1995); Creativity as the production of effective novelty (A.J.Cropley, 1999; T.Lubart, 2001; M. Mumford, 2003); Originality that closely linked to the novelty, which is the essence of the creativity (D.N.Jackson, S.J. Messick, 1967; F. Barron, 1988; R.A. Ochse, 1990; G. Kaufmann,1993; T. Lubart, 1996); Creativity based on “successful novelty” (R. Gregory, 1981); Creativity based on “radical novelty”, that distinguish from trivial forms of novelty (C.R. Hausman,1987); Classification of novel output: Original, Germinal, Transformational (S.P.Besemer, K.O’Quinn 1987); Some levels of novelty : from lowest level –“difference” to highest -“radical newness” (G. Kaufmann,1993, 2003); Two kinds of novelty : «novelty of component mental operation' and 'novelty of the content of the task» (H.Gardner, R. Sternberg, 1994); Originality which is defined within sociocultural group to provide meaningful criteria (K.Simonton, 1999); Distinction between novelty on the stimulus and novelty on the response side (G. Kaufmann, 2003).
2. Novelty and value (relevance, appropriateness, significance, usefulness, effectiveness, purposefulness, logicalness, ﬁt, adequacy, valuableness, intrinsically good, contributes to something and meets task constraints).
Creative solution: a new and useful, denying the old ideas and the result of strong motivation and persistence, the result of clarifying the problem (A.Newell, I.Shaw, H.Simon, 1962); Novelty and appropriateness (P.W.Jackson, S. Messick 1965); Novelty and relevance (G.F. Kneller, 1965); Production of novel and useful ideas (M. Stein, 1974); Creative product that characterized by Novelty and value (L.Briskman, 1980); Creative products, tangible and intangible, must be unique only to the creator, and must meet the criteria of purpose and value established by the creator (P.K. Welsch,1980); Creative product is both a novel and usefulness (K. Gilhooley,1982, F.Barron,1995); Creative product is both a novel and appropriate, useful, correct or valuable (T. Amabile, 1983. 1996; L.Novelli, 1993); Novelty and intelligibility (C. Hausman, 1985); Two essential qualities of creative outcome: Novelty (newness, uniqueness) and Value (usefulness, appropriateness, resolution) (M. Rhodes, 1987); Novelty and Value (it is useful, intrinsically good, contributes to something) (C. Hausman, 1987); Novelty and Value (Adequacy, Appropriateness, Logicalness, Usefulness, Valuableness) ( S.P.Besemer, K. O’Quinn, 1987); Originality must be balanced with ﬁt and appropriateness (M. Runco, 1988); Creative solution as long as it is novel and fulfils the requirements of the task (R. Weisberg, 1988, 1993, 2003); Creative work that is both novel (original or unexpected) and appropriate (useful or meets task constraints) (R.Sternberg, T. Lubart, 1996); Novelty and purposefulness (T.Amabile, 1998; R.L. Firestien, 1993); Creative work is both new or original and appropriate or useful and be acknowledged as such by social consensus (F. Barron, 1995); Сreativity involves being both original and useful (R. E. Mayer 1999); A creative idea is one that is both original and appropriate for the situation in which it occurs (C. Martindale 1999); Creative product “must be new and must be given value by some external criteria” (H.E.Gruber, D.B.Wallace 1999); Novel and appropriate to situation due to its context – specifity, novel and social valued product (M.Mumford, S.Gustafson, 1988); Novelty and adaptability (T. Lubart, 2001); Originality (uniqueness, uncommonness) and effectiveness (usefulness, ﬁt, appropriateness) (M. A.Runco, G. J. Jaeger, 2012).
3. Aesthetics, Emotionality and Surprise: Harmony, beauty and usefulness (H. Poincaré, 1908); Creative work is guided by aesthetic feeling (B. Ghiselin 1952, P.Dirac, 1977); "Effective surprise", "shock of recognition" (J. Bruner, 1962, 1968); Aesthetic value (M. Csikszentmihalyi, J. W Getsels, 1971, 1976, R.A. Combos, 1972); Beauty as well as simplicity as criteria for scientific theories (S. Chandrasekhar 1973, 1987); Mysteriousness (L.Briskman, 1980); High in quality (R.Sternberg, 1985,1988); Creative products, by being unpredictable, unanticipated or unexpected, cause emotional states of surprise (M.Boden, 1992; T.Lubart,1994); Aesthetically pleasing, (S.W. Russ, 1993); Aesthetics (M.Runco, 1994); Novel, Originality, surprising (C.M. Christensen, 1997); Aesthetics play the most central role in mathematical solution, thought and product (D.R. Hofstadter 1979; P.J. Davis,R.Hersh,1981; T. Dreyfus, T. Eisenberg 1986; L. Burton, 2004); Beauty as simplicity combined with complexity, that bring out aesthetic feelings (A. Br inkmann 2000); Surprise as a feature of creative solutions; The influence Surprise-value of creative product (L. Masedo, 2001; L. Masedo, A.Cardoso, 2001); Aesthetic factor playes a crucial role in the creative mathematics work (A. Brinkmann, B. Sriraman, 2009).
4. A system of criteria for creative product: Novelty, usefulness in accomplishing a goal, elaboration of original insight (D. MacKinnon,1962); Unusualness, appropriateness, transformation and condensation (J.S. Dacey, G.F. Madaus,1969); Popularity, productivity, level of reconstruction of scientific understanding of the Universe, breadth of impact, degree of novelty, social value (J.A. Ponomarev,1976); Five criterion of creative product: 1. Novelty. Originality. 2. Adaptivity to reality. The product must solve a problem. 3. Product must be evaluated, elaborated, developed, produced and communicated to other. 4. Aesthetically pleasing and looking good. 5. Transforming human existance. (D. MacKinnon,1978); Creative Product Analysis Matrix (CPAM) that consists of three scales: Novelty (Original, Transformational (surprising), and Germinal), Resolution (Valuable, Logical, and Useful), Elaboration & Synthesis (Original, Elegant, Complex vs. Simple, Understandable, and Well-Crafted) (S. Besemer, D. Treffinger, 1981; S. Besemer, K. O’Quin, 1985, 1993); Novelty, consensual, aesthetic quality (T. Amabile, 1982, 1983); New, appropriate and judged by qualified experts in that domain, by using Consensual Assesment Teqnique (CAT)(T. Amabile,1982, J. Baer, 1993; J. Baer, J.C.Kaufman, C. A. Gentile, 2004; J.C. Kaufman, J. Baer, 2012); New, workable, efficient, magical (S. Pearlman, 1983); Synergistic interaction of many factors (S .Pearlman, 1983; M. Chikszentmihayi,1990); Creative product must be appropriate, correct, useful, valuable or expressive of meaning (T. Amabile, E. Tighe 1993); Social value, aesthetic appeal, approprietness (M. Runco, 1993); Creative product is (a) unique, original, novel; (b) good: adaptive, useful, aesthetically, pleasing, according to standards (S.W. Russ,1993); Novelty, Validity (conceptual, theoretical, expressive, instrumental, social), Increment, Realization (M. Murdock, S. Isaksen, S. Vosburg, D. Lugo, 1993); Creative Product Semantic Scale (СРSS) (based on CPAM), used to define creativity in products (S. Besemer, K. O’Oquin,1986, 1987, K. O’Oquin, S. Besemer, 1989); Creative solution requires the production of something that is perceived as new, valuable and elegant (T. Amabile, 1987); The model of the creative product: a). novelty, statistical rarity, b). adaptability, problem solving, appropriateness c) originality, improving, developing into a whole (D. Harrington, 1990); Originality, adaptability, aesthetics (M. Runco, 1994); Triad of criteria of creativity: features of the product, reactions of recipient, features of the thinking process (E. Necka, 1994); Appropriateness, quality and importance of a product (R. Sternberg, T. Lubart, 1995); Novel (original, unexpected), high in quality and appropriate (useful, meets task constraints (R. Sternberg, 1988; T. Lubart, R. Sternberg,1995); Novelty, effectiveness and ethicality’ (D. Cropley, 2002); Novel, relevant, effective (D. Cropley, A. Cropley, 2005) Novelty (Surprising, Original), Resolution (Logical, Useful, Valuable, Understable), Style (Organic, Elegant, Well-Crafted) (S. P. Besemer, 2006); Effectiveness (aesthetical, theoretical, interpersonal), novelty (different, unique), authenticity (originates in the self) (L. Sundararajan, J. R. Averill, 2007); A set of criteria for creativity: a list of 18 criteria which centers around three attributes: novelty, quality, and typicality (G. Ritchie, 2007); Creative (surprising, seminal, germinal), routine (effective, accurate, conventional) A. J. Cropley, D.H.Cropley, 2009); Creative product must have: Utility, Novelty, Surprise, Human agency (S. Draper, 2012).
3. Creativity as a problem finding and problem solving.
Productive thinking as an internal activity that focused on mastery of a task (O. Kulpe, 1895, N.Ach, 1905; K. Marbe, 1922; O. Selz, 1924); Creativity as a process of transformation of a problematic situation into the resolved one (J. Dewey, 1910); Creativity as the insightful problem solving (W. Köhler, 1925; K. Duncker, 1945; M. Wertheimer, 1945); Behavioral mechanisms of problem solving (N. R. F. Maier, 1940; I. Maltzman,1955); Sensivity to problems (J.Guilford,1950); The first Creative Problem Solving (CPS): three distinct stages: Fact-Finding, Idea-Finding and Solution-Finding (A. F. Osborn, 1953, 1979); The Creative Problem Solving Process (CPS), the Osborn-Parnes CPS process: 1. Exploring the Challenge Mess-finding (Objective Finding), Fact-finding, Problem-Finding, 2. Generate Ideas Idea-finding, 3.Prepare for Action Solution finding (Idea evaluation), Acceptance-finding (Idea implementation) (A. F. Osborn, 1953, S. J. Parnes, 1967); The theory of problem-solving and creative thinking (A. Newell, J.C. Shaw, H.A. Simon (1958, 1962); Sensitivity to problems, process of sensing gaps or disturbing, missing elements and forming ideas, solution or hypotheses and testing them (E. Torrance, 1962, 1967); Creative problem solving programs and methods S. J Parnes, A. Meadow, 1959, 1960; A. Meadow, S. J. Parnes, H.W. Reese, 1959, S. J. Parnes, 1963); Structure of Intellect Problem Solving (J. Guilford, 1967); Problem-solving process (J. Kozielecki, 1969); Creativity as a process of problem solving and resolution of contradictions (G.S. Altshuller, 1964, 1979; B.V.Kedrov, 1969; D.C. Tikhomirov, 1969; Bogoyavlenskaya D.B., 1971; A.F. Esaulov, 1972; A.M. Matyushkin, 1972; J. A. Ponomarev, 1976; A.V. Brushlinskii, 1979; G.J. Bush, 1974; V.A.Molyako, 1983; V.A. Yakovlev, 1989); Creative problem solving methods, techniques and tools (W. Gordon, 1961; Edward de Bono, 1972; J.L.Adams, 1974; T. Rickards, 1974; T. Buzan,1976; D. Koberg, J.Bagnal, 1976, R. Ackoff; 1978; Roger von Oech 1983; M. Zdenek, 1983; A.B. VanGundy, 1988; M.Michalko, 1991; J. Wyckoff, 1991; С. Crawford, 1983); Process of problem finding, intellectual vision of the missing elements (M. Czikszentmihalyi, J. W. Getzels, 1965, 1970, 1976; J.A. Glover,1979; R. Weisberg, J. Alba,1981; M. T. Moor, 1983; S. J. Parnes, S. G.Isaksen, 1985; R. Ochse, 1990; M. T. Moore, M. C. Murdock, 1991; М. Runco, I. Chund, 1992; T. Amabile, 1996; D. Perkins,1997); The CPS that includes five stages, to include Fact-Finding, Idea-Finding, Solution-Finding, Problem-Finding and Acceptance-Finding (S. J. Parnes, 1967; R. B. Noller, S. J. Parnes, A. M. Biondi, 1976; S. J. Parnes, Noller, A. M. Biondi, 1977); Close relation and identity of the processes of thinking, problem solving and creativity (I. A.Taylor, 1959, 1963; E. Bono, 1970; E.Torrans, 1976, 1995; J. Guilford, 1977,1979; D.W. MacKinnon, 1978; D. Perkins,1981; H. Simon,1985; G. Kaufmann,1988; J.F. Voss, 1989; M. T. Moore, M. C. Murdock, 1991; M. Runco, 1994). Universal essence of problem solving of problem solving (H. Gardner, 1985; M. W Matlin ,1989; M. Runco, G. Dow, 1999); Model of creative problem solving (TRoP) as the interaction of goal and created trial structures and options of it achieving (E. Necka, 1994, 2003).
Problem solving and cognitive processes (D.M. Johnson, 1972; P.K.Arlin, 1974; G. S. Welsch, 1975; J. H. Flavell, 1976; J. G. Greeno, 1980; J. Davidson, R. Sternberg, 1982; H. Gardner, 1985; R.E. Mayer,1983); Intuition in the creative problem solving (H. H Anderson, 1959; K. Raaheim, 1976, 1984; M. Polanyi, 1981); Problem solving and creative thinking (R. E. Mayer, 1983; R. W. Weisberg, 1988); Cognitive styles in problem solving (S. G. Isaksen, G. J. Puccio,1988; S. G. Isaksen, K.B. Dorval, G. Kaufmann, 1991); Problem construction and cognition (M. D. Mumford, R. Reiter-Palmon, M. R. Redmond, 1994).
The model of creative problem solving (CPS) (Buffulo Group): The fundamental model of creative problem solving (CPS) (D. J. Treffinger, S. G. Isaksen, R. L. Firestien, 1982); The CPS that includes six stages: Data-Finding, Mess-Finding, Idea-Finding, Solution-Finding, Problem-Finding, Acceptance-Finding and accomplishes a reasonable balance between ‘diverging’ and ‘converging.’ (S. G.Isaksen, D. J.Treffinger, 1985); Ecological approach to CPS (S. G. Isaksen, G. J. Puccio, D. J.Treffinger, 1993); CPS framework that includes three distinct components: “Understanding the Problem, Generating Ideas and Planning for Action” and six stages (S. G. Isaksen, K. B. Dorval, D. J. Treffinger, 1994); Modified CPS to become “easier to learn and use”and adding a fifth convergent thinking rule (J.Vehar, R. Firestien, B. Miller, 1999); CPS comprises of three conceptual stages: Clarification, Transformation, Implementation, six explicit process steps with six repetitions of divergence and convergence within each, and one central executive step (G. J. Puccio, M.C. Murdock, M. Mance, 2007).
Modern approaches: Knowledge integration and problem-solving (S. Hélie, R. Sun,2002); Evaluation process in problem solving (Hiroaki Suzuki, Kazuo Hiraki, 2003; Hiroaki Suzuki, 2004); Sensitivity to problems, and setting and testing hypotheses, which is preceded by comprehensive perception of the core of the problem or the problematic situation (M. Zidan, 2006); Process of creative problem finding (W.P. Hu, Q. Han, 2006; L. M. Surhone, 2010); Problem solving by Productive Thinking Model (T. Hurson, 2007); Problem-solving styles and creativity (J.C. Houtz, E.C. Selby (2009); A unified theory and a connectionist model of creative problem solving: Incubation and Insight (S. Hélie, R. Sun, 2010).
Creative problem solving in education (Дж. Дьюи,1910; J. H. Flavell, 1976; D. T. Tuma, F. Reif, 1980; O.K. Duell, 1986; L.B. Resnick, L.E. Klopfer; S. R. Yussen, 1985, S G. Isaksen, D. J. Treffinger, 1991; W.J. Stepien, S.A. Gallagher, D. Workman, 1993; G. D. Shack, 1993; W. J. Stepien, S. A Gallagher, D. Workman, 1993; B.L.Gramond, 2009); Problem-Based Learning (A.M. Matyushkin, 1968, I.Y. Lerner, 1974; M.I. Makhmutov, 1977; A. V. Brushlinskii, 1983, V.T. Kudryavtsev, 1991); Training in creative problem solving: problem-solving skills (M. S Basadur, G. B Graen, S. G. Green, 1982); Interaction of creative thinking skills, attitudes and behaviors (M.S. Basadur, M.A. Runco, L.A. Vega, 2000).
4. Creativity as a Creative Dialogue.
5. Creativity as a Creative Self-actualisation.
To be continued
Sergey L. Markov (2013)
1. Markov, S. L. (1997) Mechanisms of Creative Dialogue With the World. Paper presented at the 105th annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, August 17, 1997. Chicago, IL.
2. Markov, S.L. (2012) Kvintologichnyi pidhid do pobudovy edynoi teorii tvorchosti [Kvintological approach to the construction of a unified theory of creativity]. Pravnychyi visnyk universitetu “KROK”, 11, 160 -171.